Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
In Valcamonica are important manifestations of rock art. Their discovery was a major step in the study of human evolution. Since 1979 part of World Heritage. The characteristics of these remains allow us to speak of interest in primitive peoples awakened the reality of the moment, expressiveness and form, qualities inherent in any artistic style.
During the Proto-Camuno Period (8500-5000 BC) figures appear large, represented with a single contour line. The figure is the most prolific moose, animal has disappeared current Valcamonica Valley, covered with darts in the act of the race. The artist tries to show a particular animal, not a symbol of a kind, so worrying about representing their peculiar anatomical features. All this demonstrates an interest in achieving stylistic realism in these early stages.
In the period I-II (5500-3300 BC) increases the figurative repertoire. Arise early human representations, the image of the Psalmist appears. Abound figures and symbols of the pastoral agricultural world; pets such as dogs, cattle, or imaginary beings of Danubian origin as the idol-circular butterfly or schematic symbols. At first the figures represent isolated, then become more complex and begin to articulate in scenes of ceremonies or collective moments. At the end of this period, around the 4th millennium, new iconographic representations testifying a change is. We return to simple compositions, rectangles, linked with rills or simply become sinuous lines by rocky ravines, constituting the first attempts to chart the territory idealization always conditioned by man.
Period III, 3300-2500 BC, is characterized by showing in the monumental compositions and symbols camuna statue base of the Indo-European culture and the type objects of the technological revolution that accompanies it. The Camunas statues are so vaguely anthropomorphic masses. Probably they were located in an architectural or scenic backdrop. On these monuments are incised figures of weapons (daggers triangular sheet of lytic type or metal, axes, spears), animals (especially deer) objects and symbols (parallel lines, motifs zigzag, grids and lines) arranged in rules related to Indo-European thought. It consisted of large masses, it seems to be that kind of language following a reflection of ideology or religion of the moment. In classical phase of the period you can find the symbols of command at the top (spirals, sun), war in the central part (weapons or some animals) and production (parallel or zig-zag signs) in the bottom. These rules of composition were the result of a more complex than we could think of giving an early idea of hierarchical organization ideology.
At a late stage of the Bronze Age, in the period III / A (. 2500-1200 BC) a figurative repertoire that was already present in the late-Neolithic or Chalcolithic compositions appears: "topographic map" which It characterized by extreme simplicity of curved, rectangular ... in successive phases more complex topographical compositions, example is the sample that appears in Bedolina in Capo di Monte lines will be developed. Typical representations of this period can be found at: Bedolina, Seradina, Foppe de Nadro and Vitt in Paspardo. Iconographically the dominant theme in the incised representations, are the weapons, but understood them as objects of prestige.
Iconographic representations of rock art of Valcamonica become more expressive during the Period IV (1200-16 BC). an increase of iconography is also perceived, new scenes of struggle and war appear. A stylistic figures become more descriptive; representation unprecedented in human traits like muscle and physical features and other details appear. It is Etruscan influence. A thematic level are scenes describing a much more diverse society in ceremonial roles, routine ... It is interesting to note how in this period appears for the first time the typical figure of the hut.
In what historians have called Post-Camuno Period (after 16 BC), again the schematic representation, with simple scenes and figures in arabesque arises.
The study of art has always been a way to know the thinking of human beings. In Valcamonica rock art has helped a little closer to the knowledge of our ancestors, their reality.
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